MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

DOC I HAVE MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

What is Multiple Sclerosis?

Multiple Sclerosis is a progressive degenerative disease of the central nervous system with recurrent episodes of neurologic

dysfunction disconnected in time and space and associated with evidence of demyelination of the central nervous system.

It affects the patient in different areas of the nervous system at various points in time.

What causes Multiple Sclerosis?

The cause is unknown but believed to be related to an auto immune disease resulting from a viral infection.

Multiple sclerosis results in destruction of the myelin surrounding the nerves of the CNS. The destruction is thought to be

caused by the body’s immune system attacking the myelin sheath disrupting the transmission of information in the CNS and

lead to the symptoms seen in multiple sclerosis.

1.In Multiple Sclerosis, there is multiple scattered greying well defined lesions from few small mm size to few cm in size

present in the white matter and extending to the grey matter of the brain.

2.The lesions vary from partial to complete destruction of the myelin sheath with relative sparing of the axon , glia and

other structure.

Who is at risk of Multiple Sclerosis?

Multiple Sclerosis occurs between 20 to 50 years old.

It is more common in Northern Europeans.

Women are affected 2 times more than men.

Triggers that can cause the onset of MS are:
infections
trauma
surgery
emotional upset,
stress
pregnancy

What are the symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis?

The typical symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis are multiple and variable which explains its name.
There may be mild cases which may not need treatment or severe cases which need confinement to wheelchairs.

There is a typical course of exacerbations and remissions over a peroid of years and increased residual neurological deficit

1.impairment of vision is usually an early sign of MS
2.diplopia can occur with optic neuritis
3.unsteady gait due to the effect of the disease on the cerebellum which control balance and co-ordination
4.paresthesia or tingling sensation in the fingers and toes
5.weakness of the muscles leading to hemiplegia
6.facial paresis, vertigo and hearing loss
7.seizures when foci in the brain are over stimulated
8.Constipation and urinary incontinence may also occur as a result of the weakened muscles
9.one peculiar trait is that higher temperatures aggravate the symptoms in MS patients. Nerve conduction at higher

temperature such as a hot shower cause the slowing in the transmission of messages in nerves that have already lost myelin.

How is the diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis made?

The diagnosis of  Multiple Sclerosis is difficult and involve
1.History of a multiple symptoms involving the nervous system
2.physical and neurological examinations for peripheral neurological deficit.
3.blood count and chemistry, urine analysis are all routine laboratory tests used to rule out other diagnoses
4.Cerebral spinal fluid evaluation may show mild mononuclear pleocytosis (less than 40 cells per cubic meter, protein normal

or increased and high gamma globulin IgG.
5.MRI can search for changes within the brain or spinal cord that are particular to multiple sclerosis.

What are the complications for Multiple Sclerosis ?

1.Weakness of the muscles leading to hemiplegia

2.spasticity of the muscles with rigidity and cramps

3.Poor co-ordination and imbalance

4.urinary and bladder problems

5.visual loss and pain suggesting optic neuritis , an inflammation of the eyeball

What is the treatment for Multiple Sclerosis?

Multiple Sclerosis cannot be cured but can be suppressed:

Supportive measures
1.Bed rest
2.Proper diet and nutrition to strengthen the muscles of the body
3.physiotherapy to strengthen muscles
4.occupational therapy to help stimulate the mind
5.Speech therapy for speech and awallowing
6.social support
7.Avoid triggers

Medications:
1.Glatiramer acetate is able to reduce the relapse rates of multiple sclerosis by about one-third and appears to reduce the

overall progression of multiple sclerosis

2.Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to white blood cells which are thought to play a role in causing the

nervous system damage in multiple sclerosis. It also reduces the rates of relapses of MS by two thirds.

3.Fingolimod is a daily oral medication to treat MS by reducing the number of lymphocytes which is believe to cause

inflammation in MS.

4.Interferon which are anti-viral agents has found to reduce relapses of MS by one third.
What is the prognosis of Multiple Sclerosis?

5.Previous treatment used to be ACTH injections and corticosteroids. These are are seldom used.

What is the prognosis of Multiple Sclerosis?
MS is unfortunately still not curable at this time.
Most patients about 65 % with the relapsing and remitting form may improve to a stage where relapses are very much reduced.

Unfortunately they continue to have more disabling symptoms or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
15% become worse with progressive relapses.
10% has primary progressive MS with no remissions in between.
Death usually results from pneumonia and heart trouble.

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About kenkee481

Dr Kenneth Kee is still working as a family doctor at the age of 67. However he has reduced his consultation hours to 3 hours in the morning and 2 hours in the afternoon. He first started writing free blogs on medical conditions seen in the clinic in 2007 on http://kennethkee.blogspot.com. His purpose in writing these simple guides was for the health education of his patients which is also his dissertation for his Ph.D (Healthcare Administration). He then wrote an autobiolographical account of his journey as a medical student to family doctor on his other blog http://afamilydoctorstale.blogspot.com This autobiolographical account “A Family Doctor’s Tale” was combined with his early “A Simple Guide to Medical Conditions” into a new Wordpress Blog “A Family Doctor’s Tale” on http://ken-med.com. From which many free articles from the blog was taken and put together into 700 amazon kindle books and some into Smashwords.com eBooks. He apologized for typos and spelling mistakes in his earlier books. He will endeavor to improve the writing in futures. Some people have complained that the simple guides are too simple. For their information they are made simple in order to educate the patients. The later books go into more details of medical conditions. He has published 700 kindle Books on various subjects on health, 1 autobiography of his medical journey, another on the autobiography of a Cancer survivor, 2 children stories and one how to study for his nephew and grand-daughter. The purpose of these simple guides is to educate patient on health conditions and not meant as textbooks. He does not do any night duty since 2000 ever since Dr Tan had his second stroke. His clinic is now relocated to the Buona Vista Community Centre. The 2 units of his original clinic are being demolished to make way for a new Shopping Mall. He is now doing some blogging and internet surfing (bulletin boards since the 1980's) starting with the Apple computer and going to PC. The entire PC is upgraded by himself from XT to the present Pentium duo core. The present Intel i7 CPU is out of reach at the moment because the CPU is still expensive. He is also into DIY changing his own toilet cistern and other electric appliance. His hunger for knowledge has not abated and he is a lifelong learner. The children have all grown up and there are 2 grandchildren who are even more technically advanced than the grandfather where mobile phones are concerned. This book is taken from some of the many articles in his blog (now with 740 posts) A Family Doctor’s Tale. Dr Kee is the author of: "A Family Doctor's Tale" "Life Lessons Learned From The Study And Practice Of Medicine" "Case Notes From A Family Doctor" “The Amazing Story of the Cold Sore Virus” “Of Bed Bugs, Lice And Scabies! Skin Infections” “A Simple Guide to Sexual Health” “A Simple Guide To Cancer” “A Simple Guide to Skin Polyp and Other Polyps” “A Simple Guide to Sexually Transmitted Diseases” “A Simple Guide To Stroke” “A Simple Guide to Women's Health” “A Simple Guide to Men's Health” “A Simple Guide to AutoImmune Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Alternative Therapy” “A Simple Guide to Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia” “A Simple Guide to Hypertension and Heart Diseases” “A Simple Guide To Liver Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus” “A Simple Guide to Skin Fungal Infections” “A Simple Guide to Hemorrhoids and Anal Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Genetic Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Vitamins, Minerals and Health” “A Simple Guide to Kidney Stones and Kidney Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Asthma and Lung Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Allergies” “A Simple Guide to Eating Disorders” “A Simple Guide to Thyroid Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Sleep Disorders” “A Simple Guide to Bad Breath and Mouth Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Depression and Bipolar Disorders” “A Simple Guide to Hair Loss and Hair Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Anger, Anxiety, Stress and Panic Attacks” “A Simple Guide to Tenosynovitis Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Knee Arthritis and Other Knee Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Planter Fascilitis and Heel Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Malaria and Mosquito Bthene Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Blindness and Related Eye Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Stye and Related Eyelid Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Gastritis and Related Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Myopia and Refractive Diseases” “GUIDE TO BETTER SEX AND LOVE” “A Simple Guide to Laryngitis and Vocal Cord Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Pharyngitis and Throat Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Back Pain and Other Spine Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Shoulder Pain and Other Shoulder Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Deafness and Related Ear Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Childhood Infectious Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Celiac Disease and Malabsorption Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Water Borne Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Colon Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Parathyroid Disease and Calcium” “A Simple Guide to Electrolyte Imbalance Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Parkinson's Disease and Brain Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Neuralgia and Related Nerve Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Prostate Diseases” “How To Study Wisely For Tests And Examinations” “A Simple Guide to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Asthenia” “A Simple Guide to Dizziness and Related Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Obesity and Weight Loss” “A Simple Guide to Headache and Related Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Gallstones and Gallbladder Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Hernia and Testis Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Vasomotor Rhinitis and Nose diseases” “A Simple Guide to Aging and Related Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Hand Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Neck Pain and Cervical Spondylosis” “A Simple Guide to Autism, Dyslexia 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Simple Guide to Osteoporosis and Related Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Spinal Stenosis and Pinched Nerve” “A Simple Guide to Vitiligo and Pigmentation of the Skin” “A Simple Guide to Osteomyelitis and Related diseases” “A Simple Guide to Cushing's Syndrome and Related Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Earlobe Infections and.other earlobe Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Facial Palsy and Related Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Colic, Breastfeeding and Infant Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Cosmetic Surgery and Associated Procedures” “A Simple Guide to Edema and Causative Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Molluscum Contagiosum and Related Skin Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Toothache and Related Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Hallux Valgus (bunion) and forefoot Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Uterine Fibroid and Related Uterine Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Tinnitus and Related Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Muscle Dystrophy Disease and Related Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Typhoid Fever and Other Bacterial Diseases” 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Related Diseases and Use in Disease Diagnosis” “A Simple Guide to Heart Valve Diseases” “A Simple Guide to Congenital Heart Diseases” “Life and Death of a Red Blood Cell (Red Bull)” “Life and Death of a Sperm (Speedy Gonzales)” “Life and Death of an Ovum (Lazy Lucy)” “Life and Death of a Lymphocyte (Immune Man)” “Life and Death of a Cancer Cell (Mutant)” “Life and Death of a Nerve Cell (Motor Man)” “Life and Death of a Skeletal Muscle Cell (Muscle Man)” “Life and Death of a Heart Muscle Cell (Heart Man)” “Life and Death of a Smooth Muscle Cell (Smooth Man)” “Life and Death of a Hair Follicle Cell (Hairy Man)” “Life and Death of a Liver Cell (Liver Man)” “Life and Death of a Bone Cell (Bone Man)” “Life and Death of a Nail (Nail Man)” “Life and Death of a Macrophage (Macrophage)” “Life and Death of a Skin Cell (Skin Man)” “Life and Death of a Pancreatic Islet Cell (Insulin Man)” “Life and Death of a Pancreatic Duct Cell (Pancreas Man)” “Life and Death of a Pituitary Gland Cell (Pituitary Man)” “Life and Death of a Thymus Gland Cell (Thymus Man)” “Life and Death of an Adrenal Gland Cell (Adrenaline Man)” “Life and Death of a Parathyroid Gland Cell (Calcium Man)” “Life and Death of a Thyroid Gland Cell (Energy Man)” “Life and Death of a Testis Gland Cell (Virile Man)” “Life and Death of a Ovary Gland Cell (Fertile Female)” “A Simple Guide to Digestion of Food in the Stomach” “A Simple Guide to Digestion of Food in the Intestines” “A Simple Guide to Digestion of Food in the Mouth and Gullet” “A Simple Guide to SARS and Related Influenza Epidemics” “A Simple Guide to Urinary Excretion and Kidney Function” “A Simple Guide to Male Reproductive System” “A Simple Guide to Female Reproductive System” “A Simple Guide to Larynx and Its Function” “A Simple Guide to The Lungs and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Ear and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Eye and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Nose and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Tongue and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Spleen and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Breast and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Platelets and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Pineal Body and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Skin and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Salivary Glands and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Lips and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Brain and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Hairs and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Gallbladder and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Heart and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Spinal Cord and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Vagina and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Penis and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Nail and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Bone and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Knee and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Shoulder and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Hip and Its Functions” “A Simple Guide to The Ankle and Its Functions” “A Simple 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“A Simple Guide to the Healthy Lifestyle Part 1 DIET” “A Simple Guide to the Healthy Lifestyle Part 2 EXERCISE” “A Simple Guide to the Healthy Lifestyle Part 3 RELAXATION” “A Simple Guide to the Healthy Lifestyle Part 4 790 Health Tips” “A Simple Guide to the Cancer Survivor and Anti-cancer Tips” “A Simple Guide to the Occupational Cancers and Prevention” “A Simple Guide to the Chemical Poisoning and Prevention” “A Simple Guide to the Work Related Skin Diseases and Prevention” “A Simple Guide to the Work Related Eye and Prevention” “A Simple Guide to the Work Related Ear Diseases and Prevention” “A Simple Guide to the Work Related Anemia and Prevention” “A Simple Guide to the Work Related Heat Diseases and Prevention” “A Simple Guide to the Work Related PTSDs and Prevention” “A Simple Guide to the Work Related Infections and Prevention” “A Simple Guide to the Work Related Lung Diseases and Prevention” “A Simple Guide to the Work Related Muscle & Skeletal Diseases and Prevention” “A 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and Related Conditions” “Guide to Doctors, Medical Ethics and Medical Trivia” “The Case of the Missing Parents”
This entry was posted in Central nervous system, Conditions and Diseases, Demyelinating Diseases, Medical case Studies, Multiple sclerosis, Myelin, Neurological Disorders. Bookmark the permalink.

4 Responses to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

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